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Saturday, November 15, 2014

AC-DC-AC Converter for Wind Turbines under Unbalanced Voltage and Frequency Conditions

Ch 1:-Introduction:
1.1  Wind Energy
Wind energy had been harnessed by and its potential known to man a long time ago. The use of sails on the masts of ships, of wind mills to ground grain and cereals in American Mid-West and Australian barren outstretches predates to Medieval Ages. With the discovery of electricity, wind power has found a new area of application. Its primary use now in the modern world is to provide lighting to rural areas which are too remote to be connected to national grid. Now these turbines can charge lead acid accumulators coupled to an inverter for a rural farming community or even generate Giga watt hours (GWh) when erected in a wind farm inside a feasible off shore wind corridor.
1.2  Wind Turbine
Wind Turbines are used to convert kinetic energy of wind to electrical energy. It consists of aerodynamically designed turbine blades and generators which are driven by rotation of those blades thus generating electrical energy.
1.3  Horizontal Axis Turbine

Turbine mounted over a high mast is called Horizontal Axis Turbine. This design is common in case of wind farms, a term explained in following text, and is generally used in feasible ‘Wind Corridors’. These turbines can’t change their blades direction with wind and hence energy is generated only by wind blowing in blade direction. Although modern small HAWTs are incorporating tail-vanes which align the blades to the wind direction.
1.4  Vertical Axis Turbine
Vertical Axis Turbines for house roof installation are also now common. These are mounted on roof tops. An edge offered by this design is that the blades are oriented in such a way that wind blowing in any direction can generate electricity. It can feed the house completely or can be used in partial conjunction with any other renewable source or electric utility grid.
1.5  Wind Farm
 Normally, a single turbine is not significant enough to produce substantial amount of electrical energy. A huge array of wind turbines is arranged in form of a wind farm. Surplus energy obtained from such a farm is then fed into electric grid using a transmission network. More than 25% of electric energy in Scandinavian Countries is being generated by using wind turbines. A proper meteorological survey is conducted to point out feasible ‘Wind Corridors’ for erection of wind farms. A wind turbine output is random and depends upon the only variable wind speed.
1.6  On Shore Wind Farm
An on shore wind farm is a collection of wind turbines which are located at least 2 miles inside the nearest coastal line. These farms tend to gain advantage of the acceleration wind undergoes while crossing over geographical terrain of a ridge. As far as maintenance of such farms is concerned, it does not offer a big challenge to the technical staff.
1.7  Off Shore Wind Farm
An off shore wind farm is located inside the water away from the coastal land. These farms tend to gain advantage of the higher average wind speeds than on land. These farms offer a higher CF (Capacity Factor) ratio than that of on shore farms. However maintenance of off shore wind farms is relatively tougher than that of on shore wind farms.    

1.8  Capacity Factor:
Capacity Factor of a wind turbine is defined as the ratio of actual electric energy generated by wind over a year to the electric energy which could have been generated if the generators had been running on full name plate capacity over a year.
Maximum value of CF ranges up to 0.5 under optimum air speed and blade designing and continues to increase. Capacity Factor depends upon aerodynamics of turbine blades and potential of air corridor.
1.9  Motivation and Objectives
 Wind energy is truly a carbon footprint free, inexhaustible and safe energy source which reduces our dependence on conventional fossil fuels. Recent Geo-Political turmoil and territorial conflicts because of attempts to control energy sources advocate investing in abundant and globally available renewable energy sources. Economic uncertainty because of energy crisis can be averted. Wind farms take a lot of area but the portion used by wind turbines is low. Redundant land is used for crop cultivation. Quite contrary to conventional hydroelectric or thermal power houses, a wind farm does not require a couple of years to be operational.
1.10  Problems Encountered
The most common problems encountered in using electricity generated by wind turbines are as:
An automatic disconnect switch is necessary on a wind turbine to ensure isolation of alternator in case of an electrical malfunctioning or lightning flash.
An inverter is necessary so that domestic appliances can be made to operate on output of accumulators which are charged by wind turbine.
A transfer switch and IO two-way meter must be present on wind turbine to purchase/sale electricity to local grid if turbine is used for commercial purposes.

   1.11  Block Diagram

1.12  Aims of Investigation

Domestic appliances are designed keeping a standard RMS value and frequency of electric energy in mind. Wind turbine output is oscillatory and varies as a function of both blades rpm and generator swept area. This results in a variation in both frequency and amplitude values. This random output cannot be used directly to run electrical appliances.
In this project, we will simulate an effective way of using wind turbine output to operate a standard rate device. To achieve this goal, we will follow these steps:
Firstly, variable frequency and amplitude electrical output of turbine would be converted into variable DC voltage by using 3 phase bridge rectifier.
Secondly, a DC regulator is used to produce a constant DC output which could either be fed directly for charging battery bank.
Last, a 3 phase PWM inverter would be used to convert DC voltage into desired AC voltage at a controlled frequency.
Ch 2:- Literature Survey:

2.1  First Generation Wind Turbines:

In the first generation wind turbines, alternator was only a squirrel cage induction generator but it had a problem. The fluctuations caused in wind speed were directly transferred to grid in form of power pulsation.
The problem was overcome by using aerodynamic control. Pitch and Stall control with a combination of gear box was used to compensate for variation in wind speed. It ensured running of generator rotor at a nearly constant speed. This system required a reactive compensator present on site.
2.2  AC to AC Converters:
AC to AC converters had been used in case of first generation fixed speed wind turbines. The output of wind turbine was fed to a step up transformer which would increase it to grid level. Direct conversion gives an advantage of no requirement of any energy storing batteries or capacitors in between grid side and generator side. Because of this absence, rectification and inversion losses can be prevented which pays off in the form of an increased efficiency.
2.3  Exclusive DC Generation:
Instead of using an AC generator, a DC generator can be used in a wind turbine as well. Such a generation system cannot be used commercially to feed electricity to a community or local grid. It can only be used to charge batteries to produce lightning or for some prototype demonstration only.
2.4  Second Generation Wind Turbines:
Second generation wind turbines incorporated a partial semi-conductor power electronic control on the system.
That was the time when power electronics technology started its job. It was installed to provide an interfacing between random generation side and standard consumption side.
2.5  Device Selection Criterion:
The factors which had been and still are considered while developing a power electronics device are:
  • Reliability of Power Electronic Device
  • Efficiency of Power Electronic Device
  • Cost of Power Electronic Device

2.6  Modern Semi-Conductor Material:

Conventionally, power electronic devices had been fabricated out of Silicon or Germanium but current trend is following the fabrication of devices on Silicon Carbide which allows high rated device but still in compact dimensions. These devices can perform faster, in a robust way and with very low power losses thus allowing optimized and dynamic conversion and control in wind electricity generation.

2.7  Types of Wind Turbines:
On the basis of alternator construction, wind turbines can be divided into two types which are discussed as:
  • Fixed Speed Wind Turbine
  • Variable Speed Wind Turbine
2.7.1  Fixed Speed Wind Turbine:

In this type of generation, power limitation was provided by stall, active stall or pitch control. These systems required a soft starter to avoid the problem of current inrush or voltage flickers. Reactive power needed by the grid was compensated by the turbine by switching a capacitor bank present on site depending upon the nature of the demand. This method did not use any power electronic control in its generation. It was effective and did not cost much.

2.7.2  Variable Speed Wind Turbine:

Variable speed wind turbines were designed to extract energy of the wind even at a less velocity. Variable speed generation can be obtained by either synchronous or induction generator. Power convertors are always present in a variable speed wind turbine. Converter is used first to rectify the voltage to DC which is then inverted to AC at desired frequency and voltage.
2.8  Induction Generation:
Most commonly used generation scheme now is induction. It is simple, rugged and inexpensive. Two types of induction generators are used to generate electricity in a wind turbine. They are given as:
  • Squirrel Cage Induction Generator
  • Wound Rotor Induction Generator
2.9  Rectifier Development:
Rectification is done in order to convert an alternating voltage into a unidirectional voltage. This unidirectional voltage is usually pulsating and a capacitor is mounted in parallel to pulsating output. The time constant of the capacitor is adjusted such that as long as it does not decay to 37% in one period of the pulse, a constant DC voltage is obtained which is used to charge storage batteries and as an input to the inverter.
Conventionally, diode rectifiers had been used but modern 3 phase six pulses full wave rectifiers offer highest conversion efficiency and are therefore preferably used in wind turbine electric generation.
2.10  Inverter Action:
In order to achieve variable frequency generation, the DC voltage generated by rectifier is filtered out of ripples and stored in a battery bank. Then the DC voltage is changed into AC voltage at grid frequency and voltage by using Inverter operation. Inverter conversion is obtained by using PWM switching. IGBTs are dominating as switching devices in inverters these days.

Generation of sinusoidal waves from DC voltage by using PWM switching is most commonly used simple method of inverter operation. DC voltage is applied to center tape transformer with a two position electronic switch. The switch is connected rapidly from one point to second and the switching is done several thousand times per second. This allows DC connection to two alternate paths of center taped transformer and continuously changes the direction of it at the same time. From secondary of the transformer, a quasi-sine wave form is obtained which is filtered out to give pure sine wave without any harmonics.
2.11  Wind Turbine Topologies:
Different wind turbine topologies and their relative percentage shares in the market are shown as:
  • Fixed Speed Type
  • Dynamic Slip Control Type
  • Doubly Fed Induction Generator Type
  • Direct Driven Type
Ch 3:- Simulation
Ch 4:- Results and Discussions

The insatiable demands of energy can be met by wind energy if it could be harvested properly. The current problem is the efficiency of a wind turbine. The maximum possible value of energy which can be extracted out of a wind turbine is given by a German physicist Albert Betz in the form of a law.

4.1  Betz’s Law:
Betz’s law state that no wind turbine in the world can extract more than 59% of the total kinetic energy of the wind flowing across it. The constant factor of 59% is also called as Betz’s coefficient.
4.2  Practical Efficiency:
The practical turbines running at optimum speed recommended by the manufacturer can give about 70% of the theoretical maximum output which could be achieved by Betz’s Law. This means about 0.59*0.70*100 = 41%. This is considerably higher efficiency than solar panels which convert utmost 21.5% of incident sunlight into electrical energy in modern products. The remaining 78.5% of energy is wasted as heat.
In-efficiency in wind turbine lies primarily because of friction between rotor blades and shaft bearings, gearing losses, and slightly because of power electronic devices. These losses tend to increase with usage time.
Current research in materials sciences and power electronics is contributing a significant portion in increase of efficiencies. New materials having less friction coefficients and power electronic devices at high power rating and switching frequency with low losses are being incorporated in modern machines.
4.3  Future Trends:
The innovations in wind turbine have been pursued for a long time. Because world is running out of oil, gas and other energy sources, we are bound to deduce methods which ensure maximum extraction of energy out of wind. Some of these interesting innovative concepts are given as
4.3.1  Airborne Wind Turbines:
Helium filled balloons can be coupled with wind generators. This allows them to reach an altitude in excess of 10,000 feet. At this altitude, stronger and consistent wind currents can easily interact with the blades and appreciably more energy can be extracted from a wind corridor than on the ground.
4.3.2  Reciprocating Wind Harvester:
These designs use aerodynamically designed horizontal foils as can be observed on the fuselage of an air plane. This design can generate electricity at very low speeds of wind as well as well as on high speed gusts. This dual operation mode is not supported by currently deployed turbines.
4.3.3  Wind Stalks:
Wind stalks have been developed to eradicate dangers associated with rotating blades. There have been some issues of bird mortality and close encounter of helicopters with wind turbines. This design has hollow poles having piezoelectric crystals packed inside them. Piezoelectric crystals have a strange property. They develop an electric field across its edges when crystal lattice subjected to a deformation. When poles swing under the influence of wind, current is generated by relative displacement of piezoelectric crystals displacement.
4.3.4   Green Island Concept:
Wind energy will be auxiliary source in case of green island concept. Electricity is generated using pumped hydroelectric generation method. This concept allows pumping water from low reservoir to high reservoir during off peak hours and then allowing it to fall under influence of gravitational potential energy. This pumping is done by utilizing energy generated by an off shore wind farm near the island. Electricity is then generated in a hydroelectric generation method.
4.3.5   Wind Lenses:
Wind lenses are nothing but just a slight modification to existing wind turbines. This concept involves encircling the rotor blades in a specially designed brim. This brim or ring allows the existence of a low pressure zone in the exhaust region of the blades by diverting the path of wind. This low pressure zone forces more wind to pass through the turbine and thus generate more electricity. Researchers are sure that this design can increase the generation of an existing wind turbine two or three folds.
4.4  Wind Power in Pakistan:
Pakistan has feasible wind corridors along its coastal line. Currently, wind farms have been erected in areas like Jhimpir, Keti Bandar and Gwadar. Wind power is a consideration of the government to help in overcoming energy crisis.
Jhimpir Wind Farm was the first wind farm developed in Pakistan by the help of Turkey in 2002. It is still operational and has a generation capacity of 50 MW.
FFC has also obtained an LOI and is building a wind farm having a capacity of 100 MW as well.
Currently, the Government of Pakistan is planning to achieve electric power generation of 2500 MW from wind farms by the end of 2015.

AC-DC-AC Converter for Wind Turbines under Unbalanced Voltage and Frequency Conditions using MATLAB Simulink Simulation

The components used in the project are as described below:Components Used:
  • 3 Phase SCR Controlled Rectifier
  • Boost Regulator
  • 3 Phase PWM Inverter
Three Phase SCR Controlled Rectifier:
A 3 phase SCR controlled rectifier allows us to convert a 3 phase 120 degree phase shifted waveform set to a constant DC voltage. Due to its high rating, SCR full wave rectifier is extensively used in industrial applications where it can feed load up to 120kW.  SCR is a switch which behaves in the same way as a PN diode except that it is a semi controlled switch instead of uncontrolled switch. It blocks the voltage applied to its anode with respect to cathode till a small current pulse at its gate terminal is applied.
The instant gate pulse is applied to the gate terminal, our switch SCR starts conducting and behaves like a normal PN diode in forward biased mode. A separate Pulse Generation circuitry is used and its triggering instants thoroughly adjusted which are used to trigger gate terminals of the SCRs connected in the 3 phase full wave SCR controlled rectifier. SCRs are triggered at a delay of π/3 radians for every cycle of input. The output of rippling DC is 6 times of the input waves so no quite much filtration is required.
SCR Rectification
MATLAB Simulink Simulation:
A circuit consisting of three single phase AC voltage sources having 30V peak amplitude with a phase displacement of 120 degrees has been generated. Its output is first checked to ensure it is working in a normal fashion. The output of these sources comes in the form which is shown in the figure. Since a voltage of 220V RMS does not appear quite frequently as output of the generator in case of a wind turbine, we reduce it to a practical case such that the output of the controlled rectifier would be 48V DC. This output ensures the proper charging voltage for battery bank which is present on wind turbine site and can be used effectively as an input to the inverter which will convert it to AC and then step up its value to 220V RMS valued AC voltage which will be used to run domestic appliances.
Here a problem occurs; the output of the wind generator is random. Because of this random generation, we cannot always be sure the output of the rectifier will be 48V DC. The practical case values of rectifier are variable. To overcome this problem, a Boost Converter is a remedy. It converts lower value DC to a fixed value DC. The working of the Boost Regulator is discussed in later sections of this report.     
AC to DC Converter Simulation
Converter Output
Gate Triggering Circuits:
In any power controller application, we are required to build a separate triggering circuitry which controls the turning on and off of the switches. These techniques had been both analogue and digital. Analogue triggering methods were used in early days of solid state controlling. It employed usually a device which had a discrete conducting and non-conducting region. The rapid transitions between these two modes allowed us to control gate triggering pulses in early power controllers. These circuits were addressed as relaxation oscillators in Electrical Engineering literature.
Modern triggering circuits employ digital techniques. They have a microprocessor incorporated in the system. A program is burned into its ROM. It is interfaced with different sensors of the systems and therefore can decide the firing of the gates in an intelligent way by acquiring different physical parameters (Load Demand, RPM, and Acceleration) of the system in real time and thus adjust its firing sequence and rate. The technique we are using in our project is PWM triggering. This is discussed in next parts. 
Pulse width modulation is a technique in which the width of pulses, which are present in a pulse train, is varied in relation to a control parameter. By varying the pulse width, we change the duty cycle of the pulses and then use these varied pulses in our circuits. PWM also finds its application in communication systems where it is used to encode digital data streams. The main advantage of using PWM is that the power losses are low because when the switch is turned off, current stops flowing through the load circuit. PWM generator circuit is used in triggering SCRs in our project.
PWM Triggering:
The most common method used in varying pulse widths in PWM is by using Sinusoidal Pulse Wave Modulation. When we use SPWM, we have to use two signals for switching purposes. One is called a Reference Signal and the second one is called as Carrier Signal. Reference signal is normally a repeating sequence of triangular waves and carrier signal is a repeating sequence of half sinusoidal waves. Frequency of reference signal is quite high as compared to that of carrier signal. We are interested in intersection points of these two signal sequences. The duty cycle or pulse widths can be changed by either changing the value of the carrier signal or the modulation index. The term modulation index is defined as:
Modulation Index = Carrier Signal Amplitude/ Reference Signal Amplitude
It has no unit because it is a ratio between two similar quantities and its value ranges from ‘0’ to ‘1’.
The switching pulses for six SCRs shown above and the corresponding MATLAB attributes are shown as
Converter Attributes

Triggering Pulses
Boost Regulator:
Boost Regulator is used in applications where a low voltage DC source is present and a high voltage DC voltage is desired as output. The Boost Regulator essentially contains these components:
Ø  Low Voltage DC Source
Ø  Inductor Coil
Ø  Electronic Switch
Ø  Diode
Ø  Capacitor
A Boost Regulator works in two modes. One mode is called ‘On’ Mode and second mode is called ‘Off’ mode. During ‘On’ mode, the electronic switch is turned on for a brief instant of time and the inductor is directly connected to the low voltage DC source. The current follows the path I specified in the figure. Current is limited from exceeding a safe value by the inductor which stores it in itself in the form of an electromagnetic field.
During ‘Off’ mode, the electronic switch is turned off thus rendering path I as open circuit. The energy stored in the inductor is discharged across diode and capacitor and makes a high voltage appear across the capacitor. Capacitor gets charged to this high value DC voltage and load, which is desired to be operated on high voltage DC, can be connected in parallel across this capacitor. 
Boost Regulator

Boost Regulator Output
Three Phase Inverter:
Three phase inverters find their application in areas of variable frequency operations and HVDC power transmissions. A three phase inverter is actually a set of three single phase inverters connected together and operating in a parallel configuration. Each inverter switch is connected to one of the three terminals of the load. Load is usually 3 phases Y connected balanced one. Switches are electronic which are controlled by triggering circuitries. Pulse generators are used in our simulation for the control of switches. We are using 180 degrees conduction mode inverter here. Three switches are triggered in such a way that no two switches in a same leg are turned on simultaneously. Switch combination is selected such a way that at any instant, three switches are conducting. After 60 degrees, another set of switches would be conducting but overall, a switch has conduction period for 180 degrees. Harmonic content is present in the output. Pure sin wave can be obtained after filtration.
Three Phase Inverter
Phase to Phase Inverter Output 
Phase to Neutral Inverter Output


Sunday, February 10, 2013
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Wednesday, January 16, 2013
Artificial Intelligence 3rd Edition by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig

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Monday, January 7, 2013
Pulse Position Modulation

Pulse Position Modulation

In pulse position modulation, the amplitude and width of the pulses are kept constant, while the position of each pulse with reference to position of reference pulse, is changed according to the instantaneous sampled value of the modulating signal. Below shown circuit diagram is the simplest pulse position modulation circuit using IC-555.

Circuit Diagram:

With this type of circuit, the position of each pulse changes. Both width and period of the pulses vary with the modulating signal. Due to modulating signal at pin 5 ( Control voltage pin ), the UTP level changes to (2Vcc/3)+Vmod.
When Vmod increases, the UTP level increases and hence pulse width also increases. If Vmod decreases, UTP level decreases and pulse width also decreases. Thus the pulse width varies.
The pulse width is given by,

W = – (R1+R2) Cin [ (Vcc-UTP)/(Vcc-0.5UTP) ].

The period is given by,

T = W+0.693R2C

The space between the pulses which is constant is given by 0.693 R2C.
This circuit has many application a quick example is, it is used in communication application for transferring voice or data.

Battery Backup

Battery Backup

This Battery backup circuit can be added to surveillance systems like alarms to power the circuit during Mains failure. The battery backup will immediately take up the load without any delay.

The circuit is simple to construct. Regulator IC 7809 gives 9 volts regulated DC for powering the circuit as well as to charge the rechargeable battery. LED indicates the power on status. When the mains power is available, diode D1 forward biases and passes current into the battery through R2. Value of R2 is selected to give 90 mA current (9/100 = 0.09A) for slow charging. When the mains power fails, D1 reverse biases and D2 forward biases and backup the circuit. The same circuit can be used in circuits having 6 volt 7.5Ah battery. For 12 volt battery, use 7814 regulator IC and 14 Volt input.
Battery backup circuit diagram

Saturday, January 5, 2013
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

Pulse Width Modulation or PWM technology is used in Inverters to give a steady output voltage of 230 or 110 V AC irrespective of the load. The Inverters based on the PWM technology are more superior to the conventional inverters. The use of MOSFETs in the output stage and the PWM technology makes these inverters ideal for all types of loads. In addition to the pulse width modulation, the PWM Inverters have additional circuits for protection and voltage control.
The quality of the output wave form (230 / 110 volt AC) from the inverter determines its efficiency. The quality of the inverter output wave form is expressed using Fourier analysis data to calculate the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). THD is the square root of the sum of the squares of the harmonic voltage divided by the fundamental voltage.

THD = √ V2 2 + V3 2 + V4 2…………. Vn 2 / V1
Based on the output waveforms, there are three types of Inverters. These are Sine wave, Modified Sine wave or Quasi sine wave and Square wave inverters.

Sine wave 

Alternating current has continuously varying voltage, which swings from positive to negative. This has an advantage in power transmission over long distance. Power from the Grid is carefully regulated to get a pure sine wave and also the sine wave radiate the least amount of radio power during long distance transmission. But it is expensive to generate sine wave in an inverter. Its quality is excellent and almost all electrical and electronic appliances work well in sine wave inverter.
Sine Wave
The sine wave is the AC waveform we get from the domestic lines and from the generator. The major advantage of sine wave inverter is that all of the house hold appliances are designed to operate in sine wave AC. Another advantage is that the sine wave is a form of soft temporal rise voltage and it lacks harmonic oscillations which can cause unwanted counter forces on engines, interference on radio equipments and surge current on condensers.

Modified Sine wave or Quasi Sine wave 

Modified sine wave is designed to simulate a sine wave since the generation of sine wave is expensive. This waveform consists of a Flat Plateau of positive voltage, dropping abruptly to zero for a short period, then dropping again to a flat plateau of negative voltage. It then go back to zero again and returning to positive. This short pause at zero volts gives more power to 50 Hz fundamental frequency of AC than the simple square wave.

Inverters providing modified sine wave can adequately power most house hold appliances. It is more economical but may present certain problems with appliances like microwave ovens, laser printers, digital clocks and some music systems. 99% of appliances run happily in modified sine wave. Instruments using SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) in the power supply section behave badly with modified sine wave. The SCR will consider the sharp corners of the sine wave as trashes and shut off the instrument. Many of the Laser printers behave like this and fail to work in inverters and UPS providing modified sine wave power. Most variable speed fans buzz when used in modified sine wave inverters. 
Square wave 

This is the simplest form of output wave available in the cheapest form of inverters. They can run simple appliances without problems but not much else.Square wave voltage can be easily generated using a simple oscillator. With the help of a transformer, the generated square wave voltage can be transformed into a value of 230 volt AC or higher.
Advantage of Pulse Width Modulation 

In a standard Inverter without the PWM technology, the output voltage changes according to the power consumption of the load. The PWM technology corrects the output voltage> according to the value of the load by changing the Width of the switching frequency in the oscillator section. As a result of this, the AC voltage from the Inverter changes depending on the width of the switching pulse. To achieve this effect, the PWM Inverter has a PWM controller IC which takes a part of output through a feedback loop. The PWM controller in the Inverter will makes corrections in the pulse width of the switching pulse based on the feedback voltage. This will cancel the changes in the output voltage and the Inverter will give a steady output voltage irrespective of the load characteristics.
PWM Inverter Block Diagram

How it Works? 

To design an Inverter, many power circuit topologies and voltage control methods are used. The most important aspect of the Inverter technology is the output waveform. To filter the waveform (Square wave, quasi sine wave or Sine wave) capacitors and inductors are used. Low pass filters, are used to reduce the harmonic components. Resonant filter can be used if the Inverter has a fixed output frequency. If the inverter has adjustable output frequency, the filter must be tuned to a level above the maximum fundamental frequency. Feedback rectifiers are used to bleed the peak inductive load current when the switch turns off.

As per the Fourier analysis, a square wave contains odd harmonics like third, fifth, seventh etc only if it is anti-symmetrical> about 180 degree point. If the waveform has steps of certain width and heights, the additional harmonics will be cancelled. If a Zero voltage step is introduced between the positive and negative parts of the square wave, the harmonics that are divisible by three can be eliminated. The width of the pulse should be 1/3 of the period for each positive and negative steps and 1/6 of the period for each of the Zero voltage steps. This leaves on the fifth, seventh, eleventh, thirteenth harmonics etc
The Pulse Width Modulation technology is meant for changing the characteristics of the square wave. The switching pulses are Modulating, and regulating before supplied to the load. When the Inverter requires no voltage control, fixed pulse width can be used.

Multiple Pulse Width Modulation (MPWM) Technology

In Multiple Pulse width technology, waveforms that contain a number of narrow pulses are used. The frequency of these narrow pulses is called Switching or Carrier frequency. The MPWM technology is used in Inverters driving variable frequency motor control systems. This allows wide range of output voltages and frequency adjustments. More over the MPWM technology overall improves the quality of the waveform.

PWM Inverter Characteristics

In order to increase the efficiency of the PWM inverter, the electronic circuit is highly sophisticated with battery charge sensor, AC mains sensor, Soft start facility, output control etc. The PWM controller circuit uses PWM IC KA 3225 or LM 494 .These ICs have internal circuits for the entire operation of the pulse width modulation. The Oscillator circuit to generate the switching frequency is also incorporated in the IC. Output driver section uses Transistors or Driver IC to drive the output according to the switching frequency. Output section uses an array of Switching MOSFETs to drive the primary of the stepping transformer. Output voltage is available in the secondary of the stepping transformer.

AC-DC-AC Converter for Wind Turbines under Unbalanced Voltage and Frequency Conditions Ch 1:-Introduction: 1.1   Wind Energy ...